Allies in Emancipation:
Embodying Cultural Competence
Multiculturalism and Interpreting
Dr. Leandra Williams
Arthur. B. (2017, October 11). “Carla Shird: Language privilege and the field of sign language interpreting.” StreetLeverage. Retrieved from: https://streetleverage.com/podcasts/carla-shird-language-privilege-and-the-field-of-sign-language-interpreting/
Baker-Shenk, C. (1986). “Characteristics of oppressed and oppressor peoples: Their effect on the interpreting context.” in McIntire, M.L. (Ed.), Interpreting: The art of cross-cultural mediation. RID Publications, Silver Spring, MD.
Banaji, M.R. & Greenwald, A.G. (2013). Blindspot: Hidden biases of good people. New York : Delacorte Press.
Bauman, H. L. (2007). Open your eyes: Deaf studies talking. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Bauman, H. L. & Murray, J.M. (Eds.) (2014). Deaf gain: Raising the stakes for human diversity. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Bezrukova, K., Spell, C. S., Perry, J. L., & Jehn, K. A. (2016). A meta-analytical integration of over 40 years of research on diversity training evaluation. Psychological Bulletin, 142(11), 1227-1274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bul0000067
Bienvenu, M.J. (2017, May 17). “Bridge to Allyship: Understanding Accountability as Sign Language Interpreters.” StreetLeverage. Retrieved from https://streetleverage.com/live_presentations/bridge-to-allyship-understanding-accountability-as-sign-language-interpreters/
Biewen, J. & Kumanyika, C. (2017). Seeing White. [Podcast] Scene on Radio. Retrieved from http://www.sceneonradio.org/seeing-white/
Bowen-Bailey, D. (2015.) “Organizing in digital hallways: Preparing interpreting students for interacting in social media forums.” in Ehrlich, S. & Napier, J. Interpreter education in the digital age: Innovation, access, and change. Washington: Gallaudet University Press.
Brace, A. (2012, June 5). “The duality of the sign language interpreter.” StreetLeverage. Retrieved from: https://streetleverage.com/2012/06/the-duality-of-the-sign-language-interpreter/
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Caldwell, J. C. (2008). Critical factors in social justice orientation development (Order No. 3313137). Available from Education Database; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304558314). Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/304558314?accountid=26879
Caudron, S., & Hayes, C. (1997). Are diversity programs benefiting African Americans? Black Enterprise, 27(7), 121-132.
Chan, C. D., Cor, D. N., & Band, M. P. (2018). Privilege and oppression in counselor education: An intersectionality framework. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 46(1), 58-73. doi:http://dx.doi.org.pearl.stkate.edu/10.1002/jmcd.12092
Cokely, D. (2005).“Shifting positionality: A Critical examination of the turning point in the relationship of interpreters and the Deaf community.” In Marschark, M., Peterson, R., & Winston, E.A., Eds., Sign language interpreting and interpreter education: Directions for research and practice. Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/acprof/9780195176940.001.0001
Corral-Chandler, N. (2014). Students’ perceptions and experiences of a diversity training program at a community college (Order No. 3665579). Available from Education Database; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1641132439). Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/1641132439?accountid=26879
Coyne, D. J. (2012). The exploration of signed language interpreters’ practices and commitments with a social justice lens (Order No. 3554304). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1316620294). Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/1316620294?accountid=26879
Coyne, D.J. (2013). Social justice: A new model of practice for sign language interpreters? [Presentation] Retrieved from https://streetleverage.com/live_presentations/social-justice-a-new-model-of-practice-for-sign-language-interpreters/
Coyne, D.J. & Hill, J.C. (2016). “Social Justice in Interpreting: An infusion module for Interpreter Education Programs.” National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers. Retrieved July 22, 2018 from http://www.interpretereducation.org/teaching/classroom-modules/social-justice/.
Crenshaw, K. (1989). “Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics.” University of Chicago Legal Forum: Vol. 1989 , Article 8. Available at: https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/uclf/vol1989/iss1/8
Crenshaw, K. (2011). “Twenty years of critical race theory: Looking back to move forward.” Connecticut Law Review, 43, 1253-1352. Retrieved from https://www.connecticutlawreview.org/volume-43.
Danica, G. H., Jennifer, K. D., & Catherine, Y. C. (2007). Addressing privilege and oppression in counselor training and practice: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD, 85(3), 317-324. Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/218972341?accountid=26879
Decker, K. M., Manis, A. A., & Paylo, M. J. (2016). Infusing social justice advocacy into counselor education: Strategies and recommendations. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 8(3) doi:http://dx.doi.org.pearl.stkate.edu/10.7729/83.1092
Dixson, A.D. (2017) “What’s Going On?”: A Critical Race Theory perspective on Black Lives Matter and activism in education. Urban Education Vol. 53(2) 231–247 Retrieved July 27, 2018 from https://doi-org.pearl.stkate.edu/10.1177/0042085917747115
Dobbin, F., and Kalev, A. (2016). “Why diversity programs fail?” Harvard Business Review. July-August 2016. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2016/07/why-diversity-programs-fail
du Plessis, E. M., & Sørensen, P. K. (2017). An Interview with Arlie Russell Hochschild: Critique and the Sociology of Emotions: Fear, Neoliberalism and the Acid Rainproof Fish. Theory, Culture & Society, 34(7–8), 181–187. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263276417739113
Eckert, R., & Rowley, A. (2013). Audism: A theory and practice of audiocentric privilege. Humanity & Society, 37(2), 101-130. DOI: 10.1177/0160597613481731
Estrada, D., Poulsen, S., Cannon, E., & Wiggins, M. (2013). Orienting counseling students toward multiculturalism: Exploring privilege during a new student orientation. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, 52(1), 80-91. Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/1346133279?accountid=26879
Fausey, C.M et al., (2010). Constructing agency: The role of language. Frontiers in Cultural Psychology, Vol. 1, Article 162. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00162
Foster, M. (2018, October 2) “Erosion of trust: Sign language interpreters and hearing privilege,” StreetLeverage. Retreived from https://streetleverage.com/2018/10/erosion-of-trust-sign-language-interpreters-and-hearing-privilege/
Gallon, C. (2018). Exploring the racial microaggressions American Sign Language–English Interpreters commit. [Master’s Thesis] Retrieved from Sophia, the St. Catherine University repository website: https://sophia.stkate.edu/maisce/1
Garran, A. M., Aymer, S., Gelman, C. R., & Miller, J. L. (2015). Team-teaching anti-oppression with diverse faculty: Challenges and opportunities. Social Work Education, 34(7), 799-814. doi:http://dx.doi.org.pearl.stkate.edu/10.1080/02615479.2015.1062086
Gertz, G. (2007). Dysconscious audism: A theoretical proposition. In Bauman, H. L. (Ed.) Open your eyes : deaf studies talking. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu
Gertz, G. (2016). “Deaf crit.” In G. Gertz & P. Boudreault (Eds.), The sage deaf studies encyclopedia (pp. 159-161). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc doi: 10.4135/9781483346489.n57
Gordon, S. P. (2005). Making meaning of whiteness: A pedagogical approach for multicultural education. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 19(1), 21-27. Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/217076728?accountid=26879
Hall, W.C., Holcomb, T.K., & Elliot, M. (2016). “Using Popular Education with the Oppressor Class: Suggestions for Sign Language Interpreter Education.” Critical Education. Vol 7, No 13. Available at: https://ices.library.ubc.ca/index.php/criticaled/article/view/186129
Harris, R.L. & Loeffler, S.C. (2015). “Seizing academic power: Creating Deaf counter narratives.” Journal of ASL and Literature, 5. [Video publication]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/C3Ae20lXJ1I.
Hauser, P.C. (2015, March 6) “Effects of Linguisticism and Audism on the Developing Deaf Person.” [Video] TEDx Talks. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/73zUW76OOxg.
Hauser, P. C., O’Hearn, A., McKee, M., Steider, A., & Thew, D. (2010). DEAF EPISTEMOLOGY: DEAFHOOD AND DEAFNESS. American Annals of the Deaf, 154(5), 486-92; discussion 493-6. Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/288323505?accountid=26879
Hays, D. G., Chang, C. Y., & Havice, P. (2008). White racial identity statuses as predictors of white privilege awareness. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 47(2), 234-246. Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/212445624?accountid=26879
Hays, D. G. (2008). Assessing multicultural competence in counselor trainees: A review of instrumentation and future directions. Journal of Counseling and Development : JCD, 86(1), 95-101. doi:http://dx.doi.org.pearl.stkate.edu/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2008.tb00630.x
Hays, D. G., Chang, C. Y., & Decker, S. L. (2007). Initial development and psychometric data for the privilege and oppression inventory. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 40(2), 66-79. doi:http://dx.doi.org.pearl.stkate.edu/10.1080/07481756.2007.11909806
Hill, J. (2014). Sign Language Interpreters: Practicing with a socially conscious approach. https://streetleverage.com/live_presentations/sign-language-interpreters-practicing-socially-conscious-approach/
Humphries, T. (1977). ‘‘Communicating across cultures (Deaf/Hearing) and language learning.’’ (Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation), Union Graduate School, Cincinnati, OH.
Keifer-Boyd, K., Amburgy, P. M., & Knight, W. B. (2007). Unpacking privilege: Memory, culture, gender, race, and power in visual culture. Art Education, 60(3), 19-24.
Intersectional Souls Project. (2015) What exactly is intersectionality? A conversation with Stephanie “Najma” Johnson. [Video] Retrieved from https://youtu.be/po8AvBSaD1A
King, J.E. (1997). “ Dysconscious racism: Ideology, identity, and miseducation,” in Delgado, R. & Stefanic, J. (Ed.), Critical white studies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. pp. 128-132. Retrieved from https://muse.jhu.edu/book/45907.
Kivel, P (2015). How white people can serve as allies to people of color in the struggle to end racism. In Rothenberg, P. (Eds.) White Privilege. Essential readings on the other side of racism. (5th Ed.) (pp. 151-155). New York: Worth.
Krikau, P. W. (2015). The effects of brief diversity immersion programs on college student participants (Order No. 3739174). Available from Education Database; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1750087083). Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/1750087083?accountid=26879
Kruse, J., Didion, A., & Perzynski, J. (2014). Utilizing the Intercultural Development Inventory® to develop intercultural competence. SpringerPlus, 3(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-3-334
Kuma?-Tan, Z., Beagan, B., Loppie, C., MacLeod, A., & Frank, B. (2007). Measures of cultural competence: Examining hidden assumptions. Academic Medicine, 82(6), 548-557. doi:http://dx.doi.org.pearl.stkate.edu/10.1097/ACM.0b013e3180555a2d
Ladd, P. (2007). Colonialism and resistance: A brief history of Deafhood. In Bauman, H. L. (Ed.). Open your eyes : deaf studies talking. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu
Lechuga, V. M., Clerc, L. N., & Howell, A. K. (2009). Power, privilege, and learning: Facilitating encountered situations to promote social justice. Journal of College Student Development, 50(2), 229-244. Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/195182674?accountid=26879
Mason, I., and Ren, W. (2012). “Power in face-to-face interpreting events.” Translation and Interpreting Studies. 7:2 pp. 233-252. DOI: 10.1075/tis.7.2.08mas
Meade, A. (2010). Intercultural competence: An appreciative inquiry (Order No. 3398291). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: Social Sciences. (220145851). Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/220145851?accountid=26879
Metzger, M. (1999). Sign language interpreting: Deconstructing the myth of neutrality. Washington D.C.: Gallaudet University Press.
Minges, J. (2016).”Moving toward allyship: A current climate of agent skill sets of hearing ASL-English interpreters.” Master’s of Arts in Interpreting Studies (MAIS) Theses. 28. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.wou.edu/theses/28
Mole, H. (2018). Narratives of power: Critical reflections on signed language interpreting. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/37647800/Narratives_of_power_Critical_reflections_on_signed_language_interpreting
Mooney, M.L. & Lawrence, A. (2000). Multicultural curriculum overview for instructors: A curriculum for enhancing interpreter competencies for working within culturally and linguistically diverse communities. National Multicultural Interpreter Project: El Paso Community College. Retrieved from http://www.epcc.edu/NMIP/Documents/1A.pdf
Nieto, L. & Boyer, M.F. (2006, March). Understanding oppression: Strategies in addressing power and privilege. ColorsNW. Retrieved from https://beyondinclusion.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/ask_leticia_part_1.pdf
Nieto, L. & Boyer, M.F. (2006, October). Understanding oppression: Strategies in addressing power and privilege. Second Installment: Skill sets for targets. ColorsNW. Retrieved from https://beyondinclusion.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/ask_leticia_part_2.pdf
Nieto, L. & Boyer, M.F. (2007, March). Understanding oppression: Strategies in addressing power and privilege. Second Installment: Skill sets for agents. ColorsNW. Retrieved from https://beyondinclusion.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/ask_leticia_part_3.pdf
Ott, E.K. (2012). “Do we eat our young and one another? Horizontal violence among signed language interpreters.” Master’s of Arts in Interpreting Studies (MAIS) Theses. 1. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.wou.edu/theses/1
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Patrick, S., & Connolly, C. M. (2009). The token activity: Generating awareness of power in counseling relationships. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 37(2), 117-128. Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/235910251?accountid=26879
Quinto-Pozos, D., Martinez, M. Suarez, A., & Zech, R. (2018). Beyond bilingual programming: Interpreter education in the U.S. amidst increasing linguistic diversity. International Journal of Interpreter Education. Vol 10(1). pp. 46-59. Retrieved from http://www.cit-asl.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/f-IJIE-10-1-quinto-pozos.pdf
Rasmussen, A. S. (2012). Assessing interpreter intercultural sensitivity (Order No. 3531415). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1151843604). Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/1151843604?accountid=26879
Reagan, T. G. (2010). Language policy and planning for sign languages. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Robinson, O. & Sheneman, N. (2018). “Intersectionality, the latest buzzword: What it means to teach power and privilege in ASL and interpreter education programs.” in Winston, Monikowski, and Lee (Eds.). Reaching new heights in interpreter education: Mentoring, teaching & leadership. The Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of Interpreter Trainers. Retrieved from http://www.cit-asl.org/new/intersectionality-the-latest-buzzword-teach-power-privilege/
Russell, D. and Shaw, R. (2016). “Power and privilege: An exploration of decision-making of interpreters,” Journal of Interpretation: Vol. 25 : Iss. 1 , Article 7. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.unf.edu/joi/vol25/iss1/7
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Shird, C. (2017). “Unpacking power & privilege.” [Video]. RID Continuing Education Training Center. Availalble at https://www.rid.org/continuing-education/available-webinars/power-and-privilege-webinars/
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Simms, L. (2018). Climbing the avalanche. [Video documentary]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/AvO-qEt5gxo
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Stapleton, L. D. (2016). Audism and racism: The hidden curriculum impacting black d/Deaf college students in the classroom. Negro Educational Review, 67(1-4), 149-169. Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/1926479445?accountid=26879
Stapleton, L., & Croom, N. (2017). Narratives of black d/Deaf college alum: Reflecting on intersecting microaggressions in college. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 54(1), 15-27. doi:http://dx.doi.org.pearl.stkate.edu/10.1080/19496591.2016.1204308
Storme, S. (2015, March 18). “Self-awareness: How sign language interpreters acknowledge privilege and oppression.” StreetLeverage. Retrieved from https://streetleverage.com/live_presentations/self-awareness-how-sign-language-interpreters-acknowledge-privilege-and-oppression/
Sue, D.W. (2016). “The invisible whiteness of being: Whiteness, White supremancy, White privilege, and racism.” In Rothenberg, P.S. (Ed.) White privilege: Essential readings on the other side of racism. 5th edition. New York: Worth Publishers.
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Suggs, T. (2012, December 11). “Trudy Suggs | Deaf disempowerment and today’s interpreter.” StreetLeverage. Retrieved from https://streetleverage.com/live_presentations/deaf-disempowerment-and-todays-interpreter/
Vandrick, S. (2015). No ‘knapsack of invisible privilege’ for ESL university students. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 14(1), 54-59. Retrieved from http://pearl.stkate.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.pearl.stkate.edu/docview/1708506031?accountid=26879
Webb, J. (2017). “Unpacking & Investigating Our Responsibility Within an Inherited System of Unequalized Power: the Interpreter and Deaf “Consumer” Relationship.” [Video]. RID Continuing Education Training Center. Availalble at https://www.rid.org/continuing-education/available-webinars/power-and-privilege-webinars/
West Oyedele, Erica, “Persistence of African-American/Black Signed Language Interpreters in the United States: The Importance of Culture and Capital” (2015). Master’s of Arts in Interpreting Studies (MAIS) Theses. 19. https://digitalcommons.wou.edu/theses/19
West Oydele, E. (2015, September 28). “Missing narratives in interpreting and interpreter education.” StreetLeverage. Retrieved from https://streetleverage.com/2015/09/missing-narratives-in-interpreting-and-interpreter-education/
Wheeler, S.L. (2018). “Emotional intelligence (EQ) and the next generation of interpreters.” in Winston, Monikowski, and Lee (Eds.). Reaching new heights in interpreter education: Mentoring, teaching & leadership. The Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of Interpreter Trainers. Retrieved from http://www.cit-asl.org/new/emotional-intelligence-eq-and-the-next-generation-of-interpreters/
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Witter-Merithew, A., Johnson, L., and Nicodemus, B.. (2010). “Relational Autonomy and Decision Latitude of ASL-English Interpreters: Implications for Interpreter Education” in the Proceedings of the 17th National Convention – Conference of Interpreter Trainers. Retrieved August 2, 2014 from http://www.cit-asl.org/new/2010-proceedings-download-pdf